FOOTNOTES:

The Messengers of War by George Fernandez

Published in Illustration #62

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1  Edward Robb Ellis, Echoes of a Distant Thunder (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1975), 152-153.  

2  Theodore Peterson, Magazines in the Twentieth Century (Urbana, IL: The University of Illinois Press, 1956), 149.

3  "1737 Orphaned French Babies" Life, October 11, 1917, 594. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015033933410;view=1up;seq=590.

4  "World War I," History.com, 2009, https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-i/world-war-i-history.

5  James McGrath Morris, "How Ambulance Drivers Hemingway and Dos Passos Rerouted the Course of American Literature," The Daily Beast, 2017. https://www.thedailybeast.com/how-ambulance-drivers-hemingway-and-dos-passos-rerouted-the-course-of-american-literature.

6  Richard Harding Davis, "With the Allies, Preface," The Literature Network, http://www.online-literature.com/richard-davis/with-the-allies/0/.

7  Stephen Hess and Sandy Northrop, Drawn and Quartered (Montgomery, AL: Elliott & Clark, 1996), 29-30.

8  David M. Kennedy, Over Here; The First World War and American Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 30.

9  Gary T. Grayson, "The Religion of Woodrow Wilson," The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library and Museum, http://presidentwilson.org/items/show/22351.

10  "U.S. Immigrant Population and Share Over Time, 1850-Present," Migration Policy Institute, 2016, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/charts/immigrant-population-over-time

11  Lucy Shelton Caswell, (2004) "Drawing Swords: War in American Editorial Cartoons," American Journalism, 21, no. 2, (2004): 14-15.

12  George Joseph Hecht, The War in Cartoons, A History of War in 100 Cartoons by 27 of the Most Prominent American Cartoonists (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1919), 2-3.

13  John Canemaker, Winsor McCay-His Art and Life (New York: Abbeville Press, 1987), 163.

14  Canemaker, Winsor, 165-167.

15  Canemaker, Winsor, 163.

16  Canemaker, Winsor, 109, 115.

17  Canemaker, Winsor, 152.

18  Canemaker, Winsor, 163-164.

19  Canemaker, Winsor, 148.

20  "Ways of Smart Society," National Courier 5, no. 18, 9.

21  "Mr. Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt," The Lusitania Resource, http://www.rmslusitania.info/people/saloon/alfred-vanderbilt/

22  Jim Garamone, "World War I: Building the American Military," US Army, https://www.army.mil/article/185229/world_war_i_building_the_american_military.

23  Fairfax Downey, Portrait of an Era as Drawn by C. D. Gibson (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936), 319.

24  James Phillip Head, An Affair with Beauty–The Mystique of Howard Chandler Christy: The Magic of Youth (Minneapolis MN: North Loop Books, 2016), 74-77.

25  Ellis, Echoes, 47-48.

26  Ellis, Echoes, 61.

27  Ellis, Echoes, 257.

28  Ellis, Echoes, 253-262

29  Kennedy, Over Here, 32.

30  Ellis, Echoes, 262-263.

31  James W. Hurst, Poncho Villa and Black Jack Pershing: The Punitive Expedition in Mexico (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008), 35.

32  "Pancho Villa Expedition," Wikipedia, 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancho_Villa_Expedition.

33  Kennedy, Over Here, 33.

34  Ellis, Echoes, 178.

35  Michael Warner, "The Kaiser Sows Destruction" Studies of Intelligence 46. No. 1, 2007, https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol46no1/article02.html.

36  Dale E. Zacher, The Scripps Newspapers Go To War-1914-18 (Chicago; University of Illinois Press, 2008), 98-103.

37  Michael Duffy, "President Woodrow Wilson's Address to Congress, 3 February 1917" firstworldwar.com, 2009, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/uboat_wilson.htm.

38  Norman Rockwell, Norman Rockwell: My Adventures as an Illustrator (New York: Doubleday,1960) , 134.

39  Ellis, Echoes, 262-263.

40  "U.S. Enters World War I," History.com, 2009, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-enters-world-war-i.

41  Kennedy, Over Here, 10.

42  "President Wilson Calls Upon Congress to Act," The Outlook, 115, Apr. 11, 1917, 646.

43  Downey, Portrait, 329.

44  Rachel Conescu, "A Portrait of the Division of Pictorial Publicity" Archives of the Society of Illustrators, 16, (1994).

45  James Montgomery Flagg, Roses and Buckshot (New York: G. P. Putnum's Sons, 1946), 157.

46  Conescu, Portrait, 9-10.

47  Peter Krass, Portrait of War, (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007), 7.

48  Eric Van Schaack, (Winter 2006). "The Division of Pictorial Publicity in World War I," Design Issues, 22, no. 1 (2006), 33.

49  Conescu, Portrait, 19-20.

50  Selective Service Act of 1917, Wikipedia, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_Service_Act_of_1917.

51  Flagg, Roses, 157.

52  Society of Illustrators, James Montgomery Flagg, 2011, https://www.societyillustrators.org/james-montgomery-flagg

53  "Wake Up America! A Day of Parades." New York Times, April 16, 1917, 6. https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1917/04/16/102334091.pdf.

54  Rockwell, Adventures, 130.

55  Rockwell, Adventures, 191.

56  Rockwell, Adventures, 189.

57  Kennedy, Over Here, 166.

58  Linda Alchin, "Liberty Bonds." American Historama, 2016. http://www.american-historama.org/1913-1928-ww1-prohibition-era/liberty-bonds.htm.

59  Conescu, Portrait, 51-52.

60  Alfred Cornbise, "Four Minute Men: Volunteer Speeches During World War I" History Matters, 1984, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4970/.

61  James Phillip Head, An Affair with Beauty: Romantic Illusions (Minneapolis, MN: North Loop Books, 2018), 200.

62  Rockwell, Adventures, 139.

63  Rockwell, Adventures, 141.

64  Rockwell, Adventures, 145.

65  George Creel, How We Advertised America (New York: Harper Brothers Publishers, 1920), 136.

66  Canemaker, Winsor, 171-172.

67  Donald Dewey, The Art of Ill Will (New York: New York University Press, 2007), 46-47.

68  Trina Robbins, Nell Brinkley and the New Woman in the Early 20th Century (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2001), 9.

69  Creel, How, 135.

70  Van Schaack, Division, 34.

71  Kennedy, Over Here, 169.

72  Ellis, Echoes, 356-357.

73  Kennedy, Over Here, 61.

74  Flagg, Roses, 156.

75  Kennedy, Over Here, 55-57.

76  David Michaelis, N.C. Wyeth A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), 131-133.

77  Michaelis, N.C. Wyeth, 246.

78  Krass, Portrait, 8.

79  Michaelis, N.C. Wyeth, 250.

80  Michaelis, N.C. Wyeth, 181.

81  Michaelis, N.C. Wyeth, 228.

82  Krass, Portrait, 50.

83  Krass, Portrait, 9-11.

84  Krass, Portrait, 22-24.

85  Army.mil (n.d.) Sargent Henry Johnson. https://www.army.mil/medalofhonor/johnson/

86  Krass, Portrait, 52.

87  Krass, Portrait, 61.

88  Krass, Portrait, 37-38.

89  Bowery Boys (2014) Charlie Chaplin on Wall Street: The Tale Behind the 1918 Photo. http://www.boweryboyshistory.com/2014/04/charlie-chaplin-on-wall-street-tale.html

90  Michaelis, N.C. Wyeth, 252-253.

91  Conescu, Portrait, 26-27.

92  Robbins, Nell Brinkley, 75-78.

93  Caswell, Drawing, 21-22.

94  Dewey, The Art, 48-49.

95  Krass, Portrait, 55.

96  Krass, Portrait, 85-87.

97  Krass, Portrait, 77-79.

98  Krass, Portrait, 80-81.

99  Krass, Portrait, 107.

100  Krass, Portrait, 57.

101  Krass, Portrait, 107

102  Krass, Portrait, 92-93.

103  Krass, Portrait, 170.

104  Krass, Portrait, 105.

105  Rockwell, Adventures, 144.

106  Van Schaack, Division, 40.

107  "Imperial German Plans for Invasion of the United States," Wikipedia, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_German_plans_for_the_invasion_of_the_United_States

108  "Attack on Orleans," Wikipedia, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Orleans.

109  Ellis, Echoes, 191-192.

110  "Liberty Bond", Wikipedia, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_bond

111  Krass, Portrait, 263.

112  Krass, Portrait, 293.

113  Krass, Portrait, 271.

114  Creel, How, 139.

115  Creel, How, 138.

116  Creel, How, 133.